Citrech contacts and external links


Research projects

Hereinafter a list of research Projects Citrech has participated:

  • Ort-POR Sicilia - Innovation 14.10.05 Company Ortogel spa - POR Sicilia 2000/2006 – mis. 3.14 - Project n. 0198 entitled: “A new product “Citrus Soluble Fiber“ through optimisation of existing products by novel enzyme techniques.
  • ”POR Sicilia – Innovation 16.10.2005 Company Cinzia alimentari srl - POR Sicilia 2000/2006 – mis. 3.14 – Project n. 0291 entitled: “Pectinesterase inactivation in citrus juices with cold-pasteurisation with high-pressure supercritical CO2”. 
  • POR Sicilia 2000-2006 mis. 3.14 – Company Agrumaria Corleone SpA Project entitled: “Membrane- Supramolecular Chemistry integrated technology for selective removal of pesticides from citrus essential oils“.
  • Program PIA Innovation Project n. D08/0501/P 42300-13 – PIA REACOS Company Gioia Succhi Srl Decreto M.S.E. 1522320 del 1.12.2006 entitled “Novel methods for improve value of citrus by-products"; Projects “SAGRO“ POR Sicilia 2010 -2013 CUP G 63F11000470004
  • Project“ SAGRO “ POR Sicilia 2010 -2013 CUP G 63F11000470004 Company Ortogel SpA “Third generations solar cells sensitized with natural autoctone pigments“.
  • Project MISE Decr. 21 May 2014, G.U. Serie Generale n.134 del 12-06-2014 Company Citrofood SpA “Sustainable use of industrial citrus wastes“.
  • Project PO FESR Sicilia 2014-2020 "New products from industrial processing of Mediterranean fruits and sustainable by-products management - MedFruit"

We Connect Buyers and Sellers

The connection between buyers and sellers is of fundamental importance to the proper functioning of any business. Whenever an interaction takes place between these two parties, a relationship is created based on the buying and selling of goods or services. This connection is important because it allows consumers to get what they need and sellers to gain income and support for their business.
Without an effective connection between buyers and sellers, the market would be chaotic and would not function properly. Buyers would not be able to find the products or services they need, while sellers would not have enough customers to sustain their business. The connection between these two parties creates a balance between supply and demand, allowing buyers to satisfy their needs and sellers to earn money.
Furthermore, the connection between buyers and sellers is important for the creation of trust between the two parties. When buyers are satisfied with their purchase, they are more likely to become loyal customers and recommend the product or service to others. Similarly, sellers who maintain a good reputation and offer quality products and services are more likely to attract new customers and retain existing ones.
With the advent of technology and online trading, the connection between buyers and sellers has become even more important. Through the use of the Internet, buyers can easily search for and compare products and services, while sellers can reach a larger and more diverse audience. In this way, the connection between buyers and sellers becomes crucial for the success of business activities and for the innovation of the products and services offered; the risk, however, is an excess of proposals that are not easily evaluated by the buyer. Collaboration with Citrech makes it possible to guide the choice of supplier in the best possible way.
In conclusion, the connection between buyers and sellers is a fundamental element for the proper functioning of the market and for the success of business activities. Without an effective and stable connection, trade and the economy could not exist efficiently and sustainably. For this reason, it is important to invest in creating and maintaining a good connection between buyers and sellers in order to ensure a prosperous future for both, and Citrech can help You with this.

Letteratura sugli Antociani - Anthocyanins Literature

Nelle tabelle seguenti riportiamo dei dati di letteratura sugli antociani relativi alla struttura, alle caratteristiche ed alle loro proprietà

Tabella 1 - Caratteristiche

Authors YearTitleJournalDOI
Alappat, B., Alappat, J.2020Anthocyanin Pigments: Beyond Aesthetics.Molecules 25, 5500.001
Taylor, L.P., Grotewold, E.2005Flavonoids as developmental regulators.Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8, 317–323.002
Goodwin T.W.1975The Flavonoids: Edited by J. B. Harbone, T. J. Mabry and Helga Mabry Chapman and HallFEBS Letters 60, 221–221.003
Tanaka, Y., Sasaki, N., Ohmiya, A.2008Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids.The Plant Journal 54, 733–749.004
Grotewold, E.2006The Genetics and Biochemistry of Floral Pigments.Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57, 761–780.005
He, F., Mu, L., Yan, G.L., Liang, N.N., Pan, Q.-H., Wang, J., Reeves, M.J., Duan, C.Q.2010Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes.Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes.006
Zhang, Y., Butelli, E., Martin, C.2014Engineering anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants.Current Opinion in Plant Biology 19, 81–90.007
Springob, K., Nakajima, J., Yamazaki, M., Saito, K.2003Springob, K., Nakajima, J., Yamazaki, M., Saito, K.ChemInform 34, chin.200338265.008
Kähkönen, M.P., Heinämäki, J., Ollilainen, V., Heinonen, M.2003Berry anthocyanins: isolation, identification and antioxidant activities.Berry anthocyanins: isolation, identification and antioxidant activities.009
Alfenito, M.R., Souer, E., Goodman, C.D., Buell, R., Mol, J., Koes, R., Walbot, V.1998Functional Complementation of Anthocyanin Sequestration in the Vacuole by Widely Divergent Glutathione S-Transferases.The Plant Cell 10, 1135.010
Marinova, K., Pourcel, L., Weder, B., Schwarz, M., Barron, D., Routaboul, J.-M., Debeaujon, I., Klein, M.2007The Arabidopsis MATE Transporter TT12 Acts as a Vacuolar Flavonoid/H+-Antiporter Active in Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells of the Seed Coat.The Plant Cell 19, 2023–2038.011
Zhao, C.L., Chen, Z.J., Bai, X.S., Ding, C., Long, T.J., Wei, F.G., Miao, K.R.,2014Zhao, C.L., Chen, Z.J., Bai, X.S., Ding, C., Long, T.J., Wei, F.G., Miao, K.R.,Zhao, C.L., Chen, Z.J., Bai, X.S., Ding, C., Long, T.J., Wei, F.G., Miao, K.R.,012

Tabella 2 - Farmacocinetica

He, J., Wallace, T.C., Keatley, K.E., Failla, M.L., Giusti, M.M.2009Stability of Black Raspberry Anthocyanins in the Digestive Tract Lumen and Transport Efficiency into Gastric and Small Intestinal Tissues in the Rat.J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 3141–3148.013
Passamonti, S., Vrhovsek, U., Vanzo, A., Mattivi, F.2003The stomach as a site for anthocyanins absorption from food.FEBS Letters 544, 210–213.014
Talavéra, S., Felgines, C., Texier, O., Lamaison, J.-L., Besson, C., Rémésy, C.2003Anthocyanins Are Efficiently Absorbed from the Stomach in Anesthetized Rats.The Journal of Nutrition 133, 4178–4182.015
Felgines, C., Talavera, S., Texier, O., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Lamaison, J.-L., Remesy, C.205Felgines, C., Talavera, S., Texier, O., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Lamaison, J.-L., Remesy, C.J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 7721–7727.016
Mazza, G., Kay, C.D., Cottrell, T., Holub, B.J.2002Absorption of Anthocyanins from Blueberries and Serum Antioxidant Status in Human Subjects.J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 7731–7737.018
Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Cao, G.2002Absorption and Metabolism of Anthocyanins in Elderly Women after Consumption of Elderberry or Blueberry.The Journal of Nutrition 132, 1865–1871.019
Felgines, C., Talavéra, S., Texier, O., Lamaison, J.-L., Gonthier, M.-P., Scalbert, A., Rémésy, C.2003Strawberry Anthocyanins Are Recovered in Urine as Glucuro- and Sulfoconjugates in Humans.The Journal of Nutrition 133, 1296–1301.020
Kay, C.D., Mazza, G. (Joe), Holub, B.J.2005Anthocyanins Exist in the Circulation Primarily as Metabolites in Adult Men.The Journal of Nutrition 135, 2582–2588.021
Cooney, J.M., Jensen, D.J., McGhie, T.K.2004LC‐MS identification of anthocyanins in boysenberry extract and anthocyanin metabolites in human urine following dosing.J Sci Food Agric 84, 237–245.022
Wu, X., Pittman, H.E., Prior, R.L.2004Pelargonidin Is Absorbed and Metabolized Differently than Cyanidin after Marionberry Consumption in Pigs.Pelargonidin Is Absorbed and Metabolized Differently than Cyanidin after Marionberry Consumption in Pigs.023
Ichiyanagi, T., Shida, Y., Rahman, M.M., Hatano, Y., Konishi, T.2005Extended Glucuronidation Is Another Major Path of Cyanidin 3- O -β- d -Glucopyranoside Metabolism in Rats.J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 7312–7319.024
Ichiyanagi, T., Shida, Y., Rahman, M.M., Hatano, Y., Konishi, T.2006Bioavailability and Tissue Distribution of Anthocyanins in Bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Extract in Rats.J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6578–6587. 025
Walton, M.C., McGhie, T.K., Reynolds, G.W., Hendriks, W.H.2006The Flavonol Quercetin-3-Glucoside Inhibits Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Absorption in Vitro.J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 4913–4920.026
Prior, R.L., Wu, X.2006Anthocyanins: Structural characteristics that result in unique metabolic patterns and biological activities.Free Radical Research 40, 1014–1028.027
Passamonti, S., Vrhovsek, U., Mattivi, F.2002The interaction of anthocyanins with bilitranslocase.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 296, 631–636.028
Nicolin, V., Grill, V., Micali, F., Narducci, P., Passamonti, S.2005Immunolocalisation of bilitranslocase in mucosecretory and parietal cells of the rat gastric mucosa.J Mol Hist 36, 45–50.029
Talavéra, S., Felgines, C., Texier, O., Besson, C., Manach, C., Lamaison, J.-L., Rémésy, C.2004Anthocyanins Are Efficiently Absorbed from the Small Intestine in Rats.The Journal of Nutrition 134, 2275–2279.030
Matuschek, M.C., Hendriks, W.H., McGhie, T.K., Reynolds, G.W.2006The jejunum is the main site of absorption for anthocyanins in mice.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 17, 31–36.031
Hollman, P.C.H.2004Absorption, Bioavailability, and Metabolism of Flavonoids.Pharmaceutical Biology 42, 74–83.032
Arts, I.C.W., Sesink, A.L.A., Faassen-Peters, M., Hollman, P.C.H.,2004The type of sugar moiety is a major determinant of the small intestinal uptake and subsequent biliary excretion of dietary quercetin glycosides.Br J Nutr 91, 841–847.033
Manach, C., Williamson, G., Morand, C., Scalbert, A., Rémésy, C.2005Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies.he American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, 230S-242S.034
Kay, C.D.2006Aspects of anthocyanin absorption, metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans.Nutr. Res. Rev. 19, 137–146.035
Passamonti, S., Terdoslavich, M., Franca, R., Vanzo, A., Tramer, F., Braidot, E., Petrussa, E., Vianello, A.2009Bioavailability of Flavonoids: A Review of Their Membrane Transport and the Function of Bilitranslocase in Animal and Plant Organisms.CDM 10, 369–394.036
Kurilich, A.C., Clevidence, B.A., Britz, S.J., Simon, P.W., Novotny, J.A.,2005Plasma and Urine Responses Are Lower for Acylated vs Nonacylated Anthocyanins from Raw and Cooked Purple Carrots.J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 6537–6542.037
Mülleder, U., Murkovic, M., Pfannhauser, W.2002Urinary excretion of cyanidin glycosides.Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 53, 61–66.038
Kalt, W., Blumberg, J.B., McDonald, J.E., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M.R., Fillmore, S.A.E., Graf, B.A., O’Leary, J.M., Milbury, P.E.2008Identification of Anthocyanins in the Liver, Eye, and Brain of Blueberry-Fed Pigs.J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 705–712.039
Kay, C.D., Mazza, G., Holub, B.J., Wang, J.,2004Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum.Br J Nutr 91, 933–942.040
Milbury, P.E., Vita, J.A., Blumberg, J.B.2010Anthocyanins are Bioavailable in Humans following an Acute Dose of Cranberry Juice.The Journal of Nutrition 140, 1099–1104.041
Tsuda, T., Horio, F., Uchida, K., Aoki, H., Osawa, T.2003Dietary Cyanidin 3-O-β-D-Glucoside-Rich Purple Corn Color Prevents Obesity and Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Mice.The Journal of Nutrition 133, 2125–2130.042
Williamson, G., Sies, H., Heber, D., Keen, C.L., Macdonald, I.A., Actis-Gorreta, L., Momma, T.Y., Ottaviani, J.I., Holt, R.R., Schroeter, H., Heiss, C. 2009Functional foods for health promotion: state-of-the-science on dietary flavonoids Extended abstracts from the 12 th Annual Conference on Functional Foods for Health Promotion. Nutrition Reviews 67, 736–743. 043
Keppler, K., Humpf, H.-U.2005Metabolism of anthocyanins and their phenolic degradation products by the intestinal microflora.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 13, 5195–5205.044
Sesso, H.D., Gaziano, J.M., Jenkins, D.J.A., Buring, J.E.2007Strawberry Intake, Lipids, C-Reactive Protein, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women.Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26, 303–310.045
Klatsky, A.2001Commentary: Could abstinence from alcohol be hazardous to your health?International Journal of Epidemiology 30, 739–742.046
Aura, A.-M., Martin-Lopez, P., O’Leary, K.A., Williamson, G., Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M., Poutanen, K., Santos-Buelga, C.2005In vitro metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora.Eur J Nutr 44, 133–142.047
Vitaglione, P., Donnarumma, G., Napolitano, A., Galvano, F., Gallo, A., Scalfi, L., Fogliano, V.2007Protocatechuic Acid Is the Major Human Metabolite of Cyanidin-Glucosides3.The Journal of Nutrition 137, 2043–2048.048
Crozier, A., Jaganath, I.B., Clifford, M.N.2009Dietary Phenolics: Chemistry, Bioavailability and Effects on Health.ChemInform 40, chin.200946244.049
Wallace, T.C. 2011Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease. Advances in Nutrition 2, 1–7. 050
Nollet, L.M.L., Toldra, F.2012Anthocyanins and Betalains, in: Food Analysis by HPLC.CRC Press, pp. 774–793.051
Gonçalves, A.C., Nunes, A.R., Falcão, A., Alves, G., Silva, L.R.2021Dietary Effects of Anthocyanins in Human Health: A Comprehensive Review.Pharmaceuticals 14, 690.052

Tabella 3 - Proprietà Antimicrobiche

Antimicrobic Properties
Nohynek, L.J., Alakomi, H.-L., Kähkönen, M.P., Heinonen, M., Helander, I.M., Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M., Puupponen-Pimiä, R.H.2006Antimicrobial Properties and Mechanisms of Action Against Severe Human Pathogens.Berry Phenolics: Nutrition and Cancer 54, 18–32.053
Burdulis, D., Ivanauskas, L., Dirsė, V., Kazlauskas, S., Ražukas, A.,2007Study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits.Medicina 43, 971.054
Wu, V.C.-H., Qiu, X., Bushway, A., Harper, L.2008Antibacterial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) concentrate on foodborne pathogens.LWT - Food Science and Technology 41, 1834–1841.055
Česonienė, L., Jasutienė, I., Šarkinas, A.2009Phenolics and anthocyanins in berries of European cranberry and their antimicrobial activity.Medicina 45, 992.056
Lacombe, A., Wu, V.C.H., Tyler, S., Edwards, K. 2010Antimicrobial action of the American cranberry constituents; phenolics, anthocyanins, and organic acids, against Escherichia coli O157:H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology 139, 102–107. 057
Werlein, H.-D., Kütemeyer, C., Schatton, G., Hubbermann, E.M., Schwarz, K.2005Influence of elderberry and blackcurrant concentrates on the growth of microorganisms.Food Control 16, 729–733.058
Cisowska, A., Wojnicz, D., Hendrich, A.B.2011Anthocyanins as Antimicrobial Agents of Natural Plant Origin.Natural Product Communications 6, 1934578X1100600.059
Naz, S., Siddiqi, R., Ahmad, S., Rasool, S.A., Sayeed, S.A. 2007Antibacterial Activity Directed Isolation of Compounds from Punica granatum. Journal of Food Science 72. 060
Chatterjee, A., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., Stohs, S.J.2004Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori in vitro by various berry extracts, with enhanced susceptibility to clarithromycin.Mol Cell Biochem 265, 19–26.061
Smeriglio, A., Barreca, D., Bellocco, E., Trombetta, D.2016Chemistry, Pharmacology and Health Benefits of Anthocyanins.Phytotherapy Research 30, 1265–1286.062

Tabella 4 - proprietà Anticancro

 Anticancer Properties
Wang, C., Yu, S., Jiang, J., Li, H., Pan, Y., Li, W., Bai, C., Li, M., Xie, P., Liu, J., Li, J.2022Protective Effect of Anthocyanins on Radiation-induced Hippocampal Injurythrough Activation of SIRT3.CPD 28, 1103–1108.063
Durbin, R.P.1975Letter: Acid secretion by gastric mucous membrane.Am J Physiol 229, 1726.064
Xu, C., Li, C.Y.T., Kong, A.N.T.,ì2005Induction of phase I, II and III drug metabolism/transport by xenobiotics.Arch Pharm Res 28, 249–268.065
Xu, J.-W., Ikeda, K., Yamori, Y.2004Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by Cyanidin-3-Glucoside, a Typical Anthocyanin Pigment.Hypertension 44, 217–222.066
Xu, J.-W., Ikeda, K., Yamori, Y.2004Cyanidin‐3‐glucoside regulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.Cyanidin‐3‐glucoside regulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.068
He, J., Giusti, M.M.2010Anthocyanins: Natural Colorants with Health-Promoting Properties.Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 1, 163–187.069
Renis, M., Calandra, L., Scifo, C., Tomasello, B., Cardile, V., Vanella, L., Bei, R., Fauci, L.L., Galvano, F.2008Response of cell cycle/stress-related protein expression and DNA damage upon treatment of CaCo2 cells with anthocyanins.Br J Nutr 100, 27–35.070
Bagchi, D., Sen, C.K., Bagchi, M., Atalay, M.2004Anti-angiogenic, Antioxidant, and Anti-carcinogenic Properties of a Novel Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extract Formula.Biochemistry (Moscow) 69, 75–80.071
Singletary, K.W., Jung, K.-J., Giusti, M.2007Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Extract Blocks Breast Cell DNA Damage.Journal of Medicinal Food 10, 244–251.072
Srivastava, A., Akoh, C.C., Fischer, J., Krewer, G.2007Effect of Anthocyanin Fractions from Selected Cultivars of Georgia-Grown Blueberries on Apoptosis and Phase II Enzymes.J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 3180–3185.073
Ohara, A., Matsuhisa, T.,2004Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.BioFactors 22, 115–118.074
Yoshimoto, M., Okuno, S., Yamaguchi, M., Yamakawa, O.2001Antimutagenicity of Deacylated Anthocyanins in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato.Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 65, 1652–1655.075
Shih, P.-H., Yeh, C.-T., Yen, G.-C.2007Anthocyanins Induce the Activation of Phase II Enzymes through the Antioxidant Response Element Pathway against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis.J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 9427–9435.076
Zhao, C., Giusti, M.M., Malik, M., Moyer, M.P., Magnuson, B.A.2004Effects of Commercial Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts on Colonic Cancer and Nontumorigenic Colonic Cell Growth.J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 6122–6128.077
Chang, Y., Huang, H., Hsu, J., Yang, S., Wang, C.2005Anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 205, 201–212.078
Feng, R., Ni, H.-M., Wang, S.Y., Tourkova, I.L., Shurin, M.R., Harada, H., Yin, X.-M.2007Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a Natural Polyphenol Antioxidant, Selectively Kills Leukemic Cells by Induction of Oxidative Stress.Journal of Biological Chemistry 282, 13468–13476.079
Brandstetter, H., Grams, F., Glitz, D., Lang, A., Huber, R., Bode, W., Krell, H.-W., Engh, R.A.2001The 1.8-Å crystal structure of a matrix metalloproteinase 8-barbiturate inhibitor complex reveals a previously unobserved mechanism for collagenase substrate recognition.Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 31474.080
Huang, C., Li, J., Song, L., Zhang, D., Tong, Q., Ding, M., Bowman, L., Aziz, R., Stoner, G.D.2006Black Raspberry Extracts Inhibit Benzo( a )Pyrene Diol-Epoxide–Induced Activator Protein 1 Activation and VEGF Transcription by Targeting the Phosphotidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway.Cancer Research 66, 581–587. 081
Jing, P., Bomser, J.A., Schwartz, S.J., He, J., Magnuson, B.A., Giusti, M.M.2008Structure−Function Relationships of Anthocyanins from Various Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts on the Inhibition of Colon Cancer Cell Growth.J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 9391–9398.083
Zhang, Y., Seeram, N.P., Lee, R., Feng, L., Heber, D.2008Isolation and Identification of Strawberry Phenolics with Antioxidant and Human Cancer Cell Antiproliferative Properties.J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 670–675.082
Kallam, K., Appelhagen, I., Luo, J., Albert, N., Zhang, H., Deroles, S., Hill, L., Findlay, K., Andersen, Ø.M., Davies, K., Martin, C.2017Aromatic Decoration Determines the Formation of Anthocyanic Vacuolar Inclusions. Current Biology 27, 945–957. 084
Cvorovic, J., Tramer, F., Granzotto, M., Candussio, L., Decorti, G., Passamonti, S.2010Oxidative stress-based cytotoxicity of delphinidin and cyanidin in colon cancer cells.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 501, 151–157.085
Hou, D.X., Ose, T., Lin, S., Harazoro, K., Imamura, I., Kubo, M., Uto, T., Terahara, N., Yoshimoto, M., Fujii, M.2003Anthocyanidins induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells: Structure-activity relationship and mechanisms involved.Int J Oncol., Volume 23 Issue 3086
Forester, S.C., Waterhouse, A.L.2008Identification of Cabernet Sauvignon Anthocyanin Gut Microflora Metabolites.J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 9299–9304.087
Seeram, N.2001Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.Phytomedicine 8, 362–369.088
Bruce, W.R., Wolever, T.M.S., Giacca, A.,2000Mechanisms Linking Diet and Colorectal Cancer: The Possible Role of Insulin Resistance.Nutrition and Cancer 37, 19–26.089
Lala, G., Malik, M., Zhao, C., He, J., Kwon, Y., Giusti, M.M., Magnuson, B.A.2006Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts Inhibit Multiple Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Rats.Nutrition and Cancer 54, 84–93.090
Kang, S.-Y., Seeram, N.P., Nair, M.G., Bourquin, L.D.,2003Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in ApcMin mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells.Cancer Letters 194, 13–19.091
Cooke, D., Steward, W.P., Gescher, A.J., Marczylo, T.2005Anthocyans from fruits and vegetables – Does bright colour signal cancer chemopreventive activity?European Journal of Cancer 41, 1931–1940.092
Wang, L.-S., Stoner, G.D.2008Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention.Cancer Letters 269, 281–290.093
Thomasset, S., Teller, N., Cai, H., Marko, D., Berry, D.P., Steward, W.P., Gescher, A.J.2009Do anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, cancer chemopreventive pigments in the diet, merit development as potential drugs?Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 64, 201–211.094
Galvano, F., La Fauci, L., Lazzarino, G., Fogliano, V., Ritieni, A., Ciappellano, S., Battistini, N.C., Tavazzi, B., Galvano, G.2004Cyanidins: metabolism and biological properties.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 15, 2–11.095
Hazafa, A., Rehman, K.-U.-, Jahan, N., Jabeen, Z.,2020The Role of Polyphenol (Flavonoids) Compounds in the Treatment of Cancer Cells.Nutrition and Cancer 72, 386–397.096
Li, W., Peng, C., Zhaojie, L., Wei, W.2022Chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of anthocyanins in breast cancer: A comprehensive review.Nutrition Research 107, 48–64.097
Lin, B., Gong, C., Song, H., Cui, Y.2017Effects of anthocyanins on the prevention and treatment of cancer.British J Pharmacology 174, 1226–1243.098
De Sousa Moraes, L.F., Sun, X., Peluzio, M.D.C.G., Zhu, M.-J.2019Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins and colorectal cancer: What is behind the scenes?Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59, 59–71.099
De Arruda Nascimento, E., De Lima Coutinho, L., Da Silva, C.J., De Lima, V.L.A.G., Dos Santos Aguiar, J.2022In vitro anticancer properties of anthocyanins: A systematic review.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 1877, 188748.100
Sehitoglu, M.H., Farooqi, A.A., Qureshi, M.Z., Butt, G., Aras, A.2014Anthocyanins: Targeting of Signaling Networks in Cancer Cells.Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15, 2379–2381.101
Dharmawansa, K.V.S., Hoskin, D.W., Rupasinghe, H.P.V.2020Chemopreventive Effect of Dietary Anthocyanins against Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Review of Recent Advances and Perspectives.IJMS 21, 6555.102
Jiang, W., Zhou, X.2019Hydrolysis of radish anthocyanins to enhance the antioxidant and antiproliferative capacities.Food Chemistry 294, 477–485.103
Liu, H., Jiang, W., Xie, M.2010Flavonoids: Recent Advances as Anticancer Drugs.PRA 5, 152–164.104
Chen, J., Xu, B., Sun, J., Jiang, X., Bai, W.
2022Anthocyanin supplement as a dietary strategy in cancer prevention and management: A comprehensive review.Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 62, 7242–7254.105

Tabella 5 - Malattie Metaboliche

Metabolic Diseases
Zheng, Y., Ley, S.H., Hu, F.B.2018Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.Nat Rev Endocrinol 14, 88–98.106
Belwal, T., Nabavi, S., Nabavi, S., Habtemariam, S.2017Dietary Anthocyanins and Insulin Resistance: When Food Becomes a Medicine.Nutrients 9, 1111.107
Sarikaphuti, A., Nararatwanchai, T., Hashiguchi, T., Ito, T., Thaworanunta, S., Kikuchi, K., Oyama, Y., Maruyama, I., Tancharoen, S.2013Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 6, 689–695.108
Suantawee, T., Elazab, S., Hsu, W., Yao, S., Cheng, H., Adisakwattana, S.2017Cyanidin Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Pancreatic β-Cell Gene Expression through Activation of l-type Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Channels.Nutrients 9, 814.109
Hong, S.H., Heo, J.I., Kim, J.H., Kwon, S.-O., Yeo, K.M., Bakowska-Barczak, A.M., Kolodziejczyk, P., Ryu, O.H., Choi, M.K., Kang, Y.H., Lim, S.S., Suh, H.-W., Huh, S.-O., Lee, J.-Y.2013Antidiabetic and Beta Cell-Protection Activities of Purple Corn Anthocyanins. Biomolecules and Therapeutics 21, 284–289.110
Matsui, T., Ebuchi, S., Kobayashi, M., Fukui, K., Sugita, K., Terahara, N., Matsumoto, K.2002Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Diacylated Anthocyanin Derived from Ipomoea batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki Can Be Achieved through the α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Action.J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 7244–7248.111
Tsuda, T.2008Regulation of Adipocyte Function by Anthocyanins; Possibility of Preventing the Metabolic Syndrome.J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 642–646.112
Tsuda, T., Ueno, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Kojo, H., Osawa, T.2006Microarray profiling of gene expression in human adipocytes in response to anthocyanins.Biochemical Pharmacology 71, 1184–1197.113
Tsuda, T., Ueno, Y., Kojo, H., Yoshikawa, T., Osawa, T.2005Gene expression profile of isolated rat adipocytes treated with anthocyanins.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1733, 137–147.114
Sasaki, R., Nishimura, N., Hoshino, H., Isa, Y., Kadowaki, M., Ichi, T., Tanaka, A., Nishiumi, S., Fukuda, I., Ashida, H., Horio, F., Tsuda, T.2007Cyanidin 3-glucoside ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to downregulation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in diabetic mice.Biochemical Pharmacology 74, 1619–1627.115
Channuwong, P., Salae, K., Chongruchiroj, S., Cheng, H., Suantawee, T., Thilavech, T., Adisakwattana, S.2022Dietary anthocyanins inhibit insulin fibril formation and cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 223, 1578–1585.116
Saithong, T., Thilavech, T., Adisakwattana, S.2018Cyanidin-3-rutinoside reduces insulin fibrillation and attenuates insulin fibrils-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 113, 259–268.117
Rambaran, R.N., Serpell, L.C.2008Amyloid fibrils: Abnormal protein assembly.Prion 2, 112–117.118
Choudhary, S., Kishore, N., Hosur, R.V.2015Inhibition of insulin fibrillation by osmolytes: Mechanistic Insights.Sci Rep 5, 17599.119
Shinohara, M., Sato, N.2017Bidirectional interactions between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.Neurochemistry International 108, 296–302.120
Raleigh, D., Zhang, X., Hastoy, B., Clark, A.2017The β-cell assassin: IAPP cytotoxicity.Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 59, R121–R140.121
Brange, J., Andersen, L., Laursen, E.D., Meyn, G., Rasmussen, E.1997Toward Understanding Insulin Fibrillation.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 86, 517–525.122
Hua, Q., Weiss, M.A.2004Mechanism of Insulin Fibrillation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 21449–21460.123
Van Den Berghe, G., Wouters, P., Weekers, F., Verwaest, C., Bruyninckx, F., Schetz, M., Vlasselaers, D., Ferdinande, P., Lauwers, P., Bouillon, R.2001Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients. N Engl J Med 345, 1359–1367. 124
Raskin, P., Allen, E., Hollander, P., Lewin, A., Gabbay, R.A., Hu, P., Bode, B., Garber, A.2005Initiating Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes.Diabetes Care 28, 260–265.125
Foderà, V., Librizzi, F., Groenning, M., Van De Weert, M., Leone, M.2008Secondary Nucleation and Accessible Surface in Insulin Amyloid Fibril Formation.J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 3853–3858.126
Rajasekhar, K., Chakrabarti, M., Govindaraju, T.2015Function and toxicity of amyloid beta and recent therapeutic interventions targeting amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease.Chem. Commun. 51, 13434–13450.127
Yoshihara, H., Saito, J., Tanabe, A., Amada, T., Asakura, T., Kitagawa, K., Asada, S.2016Characterization of Novel Insulin Fibrils That Show Strong Cytotoxicity Under Physiological pH.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 105, 1419–1426.128
Tsuda, T.2012Dietary anthocyanin‐rich plants: Biochemical basis and recent progress in health benefits studies.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 56, 159–170.129
Mojica, L., Berhow, M., De Mejia, E.G.2017Black Bean Coat Anthocyanin‐Rich Extracts and Pure Anthocyanins Modulated Molecular Markers of Diabetes.The FASEB Journal 31.130

Tabella 6 proprietà Antiossidanti

 Antioxydant Properties
Proteggente, A.R., Pannala, A.S., Paganga, G., Buren, L.V., Wagner, E., Wiseman, S., Put, F.V.D., Dacombe, C., Rice-Evans, C.A.2002The Antioxidant Activity of Regularly Consumed Fruit and Vegetables Reflects their Phenolic and Vitamin C Composition.Free Radical Research 36, 217–233.131
Seeram, N.P., Nair, M.G.2002Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Structure−Activity-Related Studies of the Dietary Constituents Anthocyanins, Anthocyanidins, and Catechins.J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 5308–5312.132
Jing, P., Zhao, S., Ruan, S., Sui, Z., Chen, L., Jiang, L., Qian, B.2014Quantitative studies on structure–ORAC relationships of anthocyanins from eggplant and radish using 3D-QSAR.Food Chemistry 145, 365–371.133
Kongpichitchoke, T., Hsu, J.L., Huang, T.C.,2015Number of Hydroxyl Groups on the B-Ring of Flavonoids Affects Their Antioxidant Activity and Interaction with Phorbol Ester Binding Site of PKCδ C1B Domain: In Vitro and in Silico Studies.J. Agric. Food Chem. 63, 4580–4586.134
Huang, D., Ou, B., Prior, R.L.2005The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays.J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 1841–1856.135
Wang, H., Cao, G., Prior, R.L.1997Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity of Anthocyanins.J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 304–309.136
Acquaviva, R., Russo, A., Galvano, F., Galvano, G., Barcellona, M.L., Li Volti, G., Vanella, A.2003Cyanidin and cyanidin 3- O -β-D-glucoside as DNA cleavage protectors and antioxidants.Cell Biol Toxicol 19, 243–252.137
Serraino, I., Dugo, L., Dugo, P., Mondello, L., Mazzon, E., Dugo, G., Caputi, A.P., Cuzzocrea, S.2003Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure.Life Sciences 73, 1097–1114.138
Tarozzi, A., Marchesi, A., Hrelia, S., Angeloni, C., Andrisano, V., Fiori, J., Cantelli-Forti, G., Hrelia, P.2005Protective effects of Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside against UVA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes.Photochem Photobiol 2004-06-14-RA-200.139
Cimino, F., Ambra, R., Canali, R., Saija, A., Virgili, F.2006Effect of Cyanidin-3- O -glucoside on UVB-Induced Response in Human Keratinocytes.J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 4041–4047.140
Guerra, M.C., Galvano, F., Bonsi, L., Speroni, E., Costa, S., Renzulli, C., Cervellati, R.2005Cyanidin-3- O -β-glucopyranoside, a natural free-radical scavenger against aflatoxin B1- and ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2).Br J Nutr 94, 211–220. 141
Russo, A., La Fauci, L., Acquaviva, R., Campisi, A., Raciti, G., Scifo, C., Renis, M., Galvano, G., Vanella, A., Galvano, F.,2005Ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage in human fibroblast: protective effect of cyanidin 3-O-β-d-glucoside.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 16, 31–37.142
Szymanowska, U., Baraniak, B.2019Antioxidant and Potentially Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Anthocyanin Fractions from Pomace Obtained from Enzymatically Treated Raspberries.Antioxidants 8, 299.143
Lee, Y.-M., Yoon, Y., Yoon, H., Park, H.-M., Song, S., Yeum, K.-J.2017Dietary Anthocyanins against Obesity and Inflammation.Nutrients 9, 1089.144
Li, S., Wu, B., Fu, W., Reddivari, L.,2019The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Dietary Anthocyanins against Ulcerative Colitis.IJMS 20, 2588.145
Pereira, S.R., Pereira, R., Figueiredo, I., Freitas, V., Dinis, T.C.P., Almeida, L.M.2017Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich fraction from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and 5-aminosalicylic acid in a TNBS-induced colitis rat model.PLoS ONE 12, e0174116.146
Ngamsamer, C., Sirivarasai, J., Sutjarit, N.

2022The Benefits of Anthocyanins against Obesity-Induced Inflammation.Biomolecules 12, 852.147
Jayarathne, S., Stull, A.J., Park, O., Kim, J.H., Thompson, L., Moustaid‐Moussa, N.2019Protective Effects of Anthocyanins in Obesity‐Associated Inflammation and Changes in Gut Microbiome.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 63, 1900149.148
Azzini, E., Giacometti, J., Russo, G.L.2017Antiobesity Effects of Anthocyanins in Preclinical and Clinical Studies.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017, 1–11.149
Thompson, K., Pederick, W., Santhakumar, A.B.
2016Anthocyanins in obesity-associated thrombogenesis: a review of the potential mechanism of action.Food Funct. 7, 2169–2178.150
Knaup, B., Oehme, A., Valotis, A., Schreier, P.2009Anthocyanins as lipoxygenase inhibitors.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 53, 617–624.151
Singh, C.K., Siddiqui, I.A., El‐Abd, S., Mukhtar, H., Ahmad, N.2016Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 60, 1406–1415.152
Phan, M.A.T., Bucknall, M.P., Arcot, J.2019Interferences of anthocyanins with the uptake of lycopene in Caco-2 cells, and their interactive effects on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation in vitro and ex vivo.Food Chemistry 276, 402–409.153
Valenza, A., Bonfanti, C., Pasini, M.E., Bellosta, P.2018Anthocyanins Function as Anti-Inflammatory Agents in a Drosophila Model for Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration.BioMed Research International 2018, 1–9.154

Tabella 7 Applicazioni Oculari

Eye Diseases
Matsumoto, H., Nakamura, Y., Iida, H., Ito, K., Ohguro, H.2006Comparative assessment of distribution of blackcurrant anthocyanins in rabbit and rat ocular tissues.Experimental Eye Research 83, 348–356.155
Nakaishi, H., Matsumoto, H., Tominaga, S., Hirayama, M.2000Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans.Altern Med Rev 5, 553–562.
Pojer, E., Mattivi, F., Johnson, D., Stockley, C.S.2013The Case for Anthocyanin Consumption to Promote Human Health: A Review.Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safe 12, 483–508.157
Ohguro, H., Ohguro, I., Katai, M., Tanaka, S.2012Two-Year Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Black Currant Anthocyanins on Visual Field in Glaucoma.Ophthalmologica 228, 26–35.158
Iida, H., Nakamura, Y., Matsumoto, H., Takeuchi, Y., Harano, S., Ishihara, M., Katsumi, O.2010Effect of Black-Currant Extract on Negative Lens-Induced Ocular Growth in Chicks.Ophthalmic Res 44, 242–250.159
Nabavi, S.F., Habtemariam, S., Daglia, M., Shafighi, N., Barber, A.J., Nabavi, S.M.2014Anthocyanins as a Potential Therapy for Diabetic Retinopathy.CMC 22, 51–58.160
Jin, X., Wang, C., Wu, W., Liu, T., Ji, B., Zhou, F.2018Cyanidin-3-glucoside Alleviates 4-Hydroxyhexenal-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 Pathway in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.Journal of Immunology Research 2018, 1–8.161
Zhang, J., Liang, X., Li, X., Guan, Z., Liao, Z., Luo, Yun, Luo, Yunxia,2016Ocular delivery of cyanidin-3-glycoside in liposomes and its prevention of selenite-induced oxidative stress.Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 42, 546–553.162
Song, X.-L., Li, M.-J., Liu, Q., Hu, Z.-X., Xu, Z.-Y., Li, J.-H., Zheng, W.-L., Huang, X.-M., Xiao, F., Cui, Y.-H., Pan, H.-W.2020Cyanidin-3- O -glucoside Protects Lens Epithelial Cells against High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis and Prevents Cataract Formation via Suppressing NF-κB Activation and Cox-2 Expression.J. Agric. Food Chem. 68, 8286–8294.163
Kalt, W., McDonald, J.E., Fillmore, S.A.E., Tremblay, F.2014Blueberry Effects on Dark Vision and Recovery after Photobleaching: Placebo-Controlled Crossover Studies.J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 11180–11189.164
Majumdar, S., Srirangam, R.2010Potential of the bioflavonoids in the prevention/treatment of ocular disorders.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 62, 951–965.165
Giannaccare, G., Pellegrini, M., Senni, C., Bernabei, F., Scorcia, V., Cicero, A.F.G.2020Clinical Applications of Astaxanthin in the Treatment of Ocular Diseases: Emerging Insights.Marine Drugs 18, 239.166
Wang, Y., Huo, Y., Zhao, L., Lu, F., Wang, O., Yang, X., Ji, B., Zhou, F.,2016Cyanidin‐3‐glucoside and its phenolic acid metabolites attenuate visible light‐induced retinal degeneration in vivo via activation of Nrf2/HO‐1 pathway and NF‐κB suppression.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 60, 1564–1577.

Nomi, Y., Iwasaki-Kurashige, K.,  Matsumoto, H.2019Therapeutic Effects of Anthocyanins for Vision and Eye Health.Molecules 24, 3311.168
Kosehira, M., Machida, N., Kitaichi, N.2020A 12-Week-Long Intake of Bilberry Extract (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Improved Objective Findings of Ciliary Muscle Contraction of the Eye: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Comparison Trial. Nutrients 12, 600. 169

Tabella 8 - Malattie Cardiovascolari

Cardiovascular Diseases
Aviram, M., Kaplan, M., Rosenblat, M., Fuhrman, B.2005Dietary Antioxidants and Paraoxonases Against LDL Oxidation and Atherosclerosis DevelopmentAtherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 263–300.170
Serban, C., Sahebkar, A., Ursoniu, S., Andrica, F., Banach, M.2015Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Journal of Hypertension 33, 1119–1127.171
Wallace, T., Slavin, M., Frankenfeld, C.2016Systematic Review of Anthocyanins and Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.Nutrients 8, 32.172
Wang, X., Ouyang, Y.Y., Liu, J., Zhao, G. 2014Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr 111, 1–11. 173
Hassellund, S.S., Flaa, A., Kjeldsen, S.E., Seljeflot, I., Karlsen, A., Erlund, I., Rostrup, M.2013Effects of anthocyanins on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in pre-hypertensive men: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study.J Hum Hypertens 27, 100–106.174
Sorrenti, V., Mazza, F., Campisi, A., Di Giacomo, C., Acquaviva, R., Vanella, L., Galvano, F.2007Heme oxygenase induction by cyanidin‐3‐O‐β‐glucoside in cultured human endothelial cells.Molecular Nutrition Food Res 51, 580–586.175
Garcia-Alonso, M., Minihane, A.M., Rimbach, G., Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C., De Pascual-Teresa, S.2009Red wine anthocyanins are rapidly absorbed in humans and affect monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and antioxidant capacity of plasma.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 20, 521–529.176
Mauray, A., Felgines, C., Morand, C., Mazur, A., Scalbert, A., Milenkovic, D.2012Bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract alters expression of genes related to atherosclerosis development in aorta of apo E-deficient mice.Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 22, 72–80.177
Tsuda, T., Shiga, K., Ohshima, K., Kawakishi, S., Osawa, T.1996Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L.Biochemical Pharmacology 52, 1033–1039.178
Dong, Y., Wu, X., Han, L., Bian, J., He, C., El-Omar, E., Gong, L., Wang, M.2022The Potential Roles of Dietary Anthocyanins in Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Cell Senescence and Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases.Nutrients 14, 2836.179
Cassidy, A.2018Berry anthocyanin intake and cardiovascular health.Molecular Aspects of Medicine 61, 76–82.180
Danielewski, M., Matuszewska, A., Nowak, B., Kucharska, A.Z., Sozański, T.2020The Effects of Natural Iridoids and Anthocyanins on Selected Parameters of Liver and Cardiovascular System Functions.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 1-12181
Reis, J.F., Monteiro, V.V.S., De Souza Gomes, R., Do Carmo, M.M., Da Costa, G.V., Ribera, P.C., Monteiro, M.C.2016Action mechanism and cardiovascular effect of anthocyanins: a systematic review of animal and human studies.J Transl Med 14, 315.182
De Pascual-Teresa, S.2014Molecular mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 559, 68–74.183
Varghese, R., George Priya Doss, C., Kumar, R.S., Almansour, A.I., Arumugam, N., Efferth, T., Ramamoorthy, S.2022Cardioprotective effects of phytopigments via multiple signaling pathways.Phytomedicine 95, 153859.184
Dellagli, M.2004Vascular effects of wine polyphenols. Cardiovascular Research 63, 593–602. 185

Tabella 9 - Benessere Cerebrale

Cerebral Wellness
Rendeiro, C., Guerreiro, J.D.T., Williams, C.M., Spencer, J.P.E.2012Flavonoids as modulators of memory and learning: molecular interactions resulting in behavioural effects.Proc. Nutr. Soc. 71, 246–262.186
Shukitt-Hale, B., Kalt, W., Carey, A.N., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M., McDonald, J., Joseph, J.A.2009Plum juice, but not dried plum powder, is effective in mitigating cognitive deficits in aged rats.Nutrition 25, 567–573.187
Spencer, J.P.E.2010The impact of fruit flavonoids on memory and cognition.Br J Nutr 104, S40–S47.188
Goyarzu, P., Malin, D.H., Lau, F.C., Taglialatela, G., Moon, W.D., Jennings, R., Moy, E., Moy, D., Lippold, S., Shukitt-Hale, B., Joseph, J.A.2004Blueberry Supplemented Diet: Effects on Object Recognition Memory and Nuclear Factor-kappa B Levels in Aged Rats.Nutritional Neuroscience 7, 75–83.189189
Shukitt-Hale, B., Lau, F.C., Carey, A.N., Galli, R.L., Spangler, E.L., Ingram, D.K., Joseph, J.A.2008Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus.Nutritional Neuroscience 11, 172–182.190
Galli, R., Bielinski, D., Szprengiel, A., Shukitthale, B., Joseph, J.2006Blueberry supplemented diet reverses age-related decline in hippocampal HSP70 neuroprotection.Neurobiology of Aging 27, 344–350.191
Ramirez, M., Izquierdo, I., Raseira, M., Zuanazzi, J., Barros, D., Henriques, A.2005Effect of lyophilised berries on memory, anxiety and locomotion in adult rats.Pharmacological Research 52, 457–462.192
Joseph, J.A., Arendash, G., Gordon, M., Diamond, D., Shukitt-Hale, B., Morgan, D., Denisova, N.A.2003Blueberry Supplementation Enhances Signaling and Prevents Behavioral Deficits in an Alzheimer Disease Model.Nutritional Neuroscience 6, 153–162.193
Krikorian, R., Nash, T.A., Shidler, M.D., Shukitt-Hale, B., Joseph, J.A.2010Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Br J Nutr 103, 730–734.194
Banji, O.J.F., Banji, D., Makeen, H.A., Alqahtani, S.S., Alshahrani, S.2022Neuroinflammation: The Role of Anthocyanins as Neuroprotectants.CN 20, 2156–2174.195
Afzal, M., Redha, A., AlHasan, R.,2019Anthocyanins Potentially Contribute to Defense against Alzheimer’s Disease.Molecules 24, 4255.196
Panchal, S.K., Brown, L.2022Potential Benefits of Anthocyanins in Chronic Disorders of the Central Nervous System.Molecules 28, 80.197
Zhong, H., Xu, J., Yang, M., Hussain, M., Liu, X., Feng, F., Guan, R.2023Protective effect of Anthocyanins against Neurodegenerative Diseases through the Microbial-Intestinal-Brain Axis: A Critical Review.Protective Effect of Nutrients 15, 496. 198
Tran, P.H.L., Tran, T.T.D.2021Blueberry Supplementation in Neuronal Health and Protective Technologies for Efficient Delivery of Blueberry Anthocyanins.Biomolecules 11, 102.199

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